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Cannabis and Cannabinoids

In this definitive guide, we breakdown the difference between hemp and marijuana. We explore the compounds found in cannabis plants. We look at the endocannabinoid system and how it creates balance in our bodies when interacting with CBD. We look at the various types of CBD oil and their benefits and side effects. We talk about dosage and why it’s important to start low.

The Cannabis Plant

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1Difference between Cannabis Sativa and Indica

2 The Difference between Hemp and Dagga

3 Compounds in Cannabis

4 Terpenes and Flavonoids

What is the difference between Cannabis Sativa and Indica Strains?

Cannabis is divided into three categories, sativa, indica, and ruderalis. General cannabis in the Sativa category offers the highest medical value for medicinal products.

Overall, Sativa cannabis tends to produce a higher level of CBD or cannabidiol and lower levels of THC. Cannabis Indica, on the other hand, features a lower level of CBD and higher levels of THC.

Lastly, Cannabis Ruderalis has very little THC and high amounts of CBD properties

Cannabis Indica
Cannabis Sativa

What is the difference between hemp and dagga?

A general rule defines hemp by the THC percentage within the plant. Hemp originates from the Cannabis family. Like marijuana, dagga, and other cannabis plants, it begins life as a Cannabis plant. However, when THC levels are below 0.3%, they are classified as hemp and generally come from the Cannabis sativa strain. If the percentage goes above 0.3%, they are considered marijuana or dagga and have a THC between 5 and 25 percent.

What are the main compounds found in Cannabis plants?

Cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids are the three major chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant. Without a doubt, each compound plays an integral part with regards to medicinal and therapeutic value.

Cannabinoids have attracted attention due to their wide range of uses. They are now widely used to treat pain and inflammation. However, lesser-known compounds can still offer significant value. Terpenoids and flavonoids can enhance the effects of cannabinoids.

A variation of cannabinoids can be found in cannabis plants. THC and CBD are the two cannabinoids most commonly associated with marijuana. And more than 80 other cannabinoids have been isolated that have unique properties.

Cannabis Plant plant spectrum

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

THC is the primary cannabinoid that gives you a natural high. When absorbed through the bloodstream, it travels to the brain, attaching to naturally occurring endocannabinoid receptors. These receptors are primarily located within the brain’s thinking and memory center.

CBD (Cannabidiol)

CBD is the part of the cannabis plant that has the most potential to positively impact people’s health and wellness, according to studies published up through 2019. Out of all the other cannabinoids, CBD is the best one (for anxiety, mental vitality, sleep, and pain).

Furthermore, CBD accounts for up to forty percent of the cannabis plant extract. It contains many positive compounds that can help with people's health and wellness.

Cannabinoids with potential


Shows excellent promise as a potent treatment for nausea, anxiety, and inflammation. 

The biggest challenge is that CBDA is a volatile compound, once exposed to heat it reverts into raw CBD, all that great promise evaporates.

 Presently it is becoming a popular benefit for raw cannabis juicing


A by-product of aged THC and is a potent sedative that can potentially offer an alternative to traditional pharmaceuticals for specific conditions.Some of the health benefits of CBN include:

Pain relief – Antibacterial first and foremost for infection resistant to antibiotics.

Anti-convulsive: CBN has strong anti-convulsive properties.

Insomnia, Anxiety disorders.


Research highlights CBG’s ability to reduce inflammation, combat pain and even slow cancer cell proliferation, making this cannabinoid, notoriously expensive as cannabis plants contain minute amounts of CBG. 

There is a high demand for CBG based on the initial research and the potential related to inflammation and anxiety reduction.


Terpinoids and flavanoids

What are Terpenoids?

The best way to explain a terpenoid is that they are plant-based. When you pick a plant such as Lavender, the oily substance on your hands is defined as a terpenoid. Terpenoids are a plant’s way of defending itself from predators by means of an attractor for pollination. Over the centuries, herbal medicinal remedies have used terpenes such as Lavender, which brings about calm and relaxation.

Terpenes Linalool Myrcene
Terpiniods Myrcene Limonene
TERPINIODS Beta- caryophyllene

What are flavanoids?

In nature, over 6,000 flavonoids exist and are researched for their wonderful advantages. They brilliantly color the flowers that we love to see and also are the reason strawberries are red and blueberries are blue. In nature, plants depend on flavonoids to protect themselves from pests like bugs and herbivores. Furthermore, flavonoids attract the bees that pollinate the flowers.

It’s estimated that 10% of the chemical compounds in Cannabis plants are flavonoids. When combined with terpenes and cannabinoids, the compounds enhance the therapeutic benefits. These compounds also contain high levels of antioxidants.

The Cannabis Plant Key takeaway's

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